sexta-feira, 23 de setembro de 2011
Ser independente é coisa de muito poucos - é um privilégio dos fortes. E quem tenta ser independente, ainda que com o melhor direito a tanto, sem, porem, ter de sê-lo, demonstra que provavelmente não é apenas forte, mas ousado ao extremo. Ele entra num labirinto, ele multiplica por mil os perigos que por si só a vida já traz consigo; dos quais não é o menos o do que ninguém vê claramente como e onde se perde, se isola e é despedaçado por algum Minotauro dos covis da consciência. Supondo que alguém assim sucumba, isso ocorre tão longe da compreensão dos homens que eles não o sentem e nem se compadecem: - e ele não pode mais voltar! Ele não pode mais voltar sequer para a compaixão dos homens! --
F. Nietzsche - Alem do Bem e do Mal
In this section the governing principles of the universe - desire and destiny - are analyzed.
In the Upanishad, a young boy called Nachiketa asks Yama, the god of death, what happens after death. Yama at first hesitates to answer the question. For even the gods are not sure. He then gives an answer which forms the foundation of Hindu understanding of life and death.
Yama states that the body has two parts: soul and flesh, atma and sharer. The atma is immortal. Only the sharer can die. The soul is surrounded by three shariras:
1. Sthula-sharira or the flesh
2. Sukshma-sharira or the mind
3. Karana-sharira or the casual body, memory of deeds
Death happens when Yama's messengers, known as Yamadutas, drag mind out of the flesh. When this happens, the flesh becomes insensitive and unresponsive to all worldly stimuli. It starts to decay. The flesh needs to be cremated and the skull cracked open to that the soul and the casual body can scape. During funeral ceremonies that follow, the survivors encourage the soul wrapped in the casual body do travel across Vaitarni to the land of the dead, where Yama rules and the Pitr reside.
Pitr are the ancestors, the dead awaiting rebirth, subjects of Yama. They have no flesh, hence no gender. They have no mind, hence no ego. But they have a soul and a casual body. In this form they stand before Yama. He determines their fate. Before pronouncing his judgment, Yama always consults Chitragupta, his accountant, who meticulously maintains a record of a jive's actions in its lifetime. The casual body is essentially Chitragupta's accounts book, a record of past deeds.
Being an accountant, Chitragupta classifies these deeds as debt or equity. Selfish actions that make demands of the world and indulge the ego are debt-incurring actions. Selfless actions where ego sacrifices its pleasure for the sake of the world are equity-earning actions. If there are debts that a Pitr has to repay, Yama ties him with a noose and fetters him to the world, forcing him to be reborn. If there are no debts to repay, Yama lets the Pitr go, liberated from the obligation of rebirth. Thus rebirth and release are the two possible destinations for the dead.
Hindu funeral rites involve the use of both fire and water. The body is cremated and the bones and ashes cast into the river. Fire represents the fire of moksha or release. The river represents samsara, the realm of rebirths. The two possible destinations of the soul are thus symbolically acknowledged. Yama, who determines the journey the soul will take, is therefore not merely god of death but also god of destiny.
myth = mythya
A Handbook of Hindu Mythology
Dr Devdutt Pattanaik
quinta-feira, 22 de setembro de 2011
The Devas, who live above the sky and the stars in the celestial city of Amravati, were not happy. The Assuras, who live under the earth in the golden city of Hiranyapura, were not happy. Nor were the Manavas, humans, who live on earth, below the sky and the stars. So all three went to their grandfather, Brahma. Looking at their unhappy faces, Brahma said, 'Da'. What did that mean? No one knew. The Devas deciphered it to mean 'Damyata', which means moderation. Their craving for the pleasures of life had to be kept in check if they sought happiness. The Assuras deciphered it to mean 'Daya', which means compassion. Their desire do dominate the three worlds had do be kept in check if they sought happiness. The Manavas deciphered it to mean 'Datta', which means generosity. Their urge to hoard wealth had kept in check if they sought happiness.